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Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis is generally a late complication of HIV infection and usually occurs in patients with CD4 + T-cell counts below 200/μl. Co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole) is the most common drug used in India for the treatment of AIDS-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis. Other alternative drugs used for the treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis are clindamycin plus pyrimethamine and clarithromycin with pyrimethamine.A 30-year-old male known case of retroviral disease presented to Kasturba Medical College, India, with complaints of fever, headache and vomiting. Computed tomography scan of his brain showed irregular ring enhancing lesion in the right basal ganglia. Toxoplasma serology revealed raised IgG antibody levels. Based on the CT features and serology, diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was made. He was treated with clindamycin alone as he had history of sulfonamide allergy. The patient was symptomatically better after 48 hours. After 21 days, repeat CT of brain was done which was normal. The patient showed good clinical improvement within 48 hours and the lesion resolved completely within 3 weeks. The authors recommend using clindamycin without pyrimethamine in resource poor settings and in patients who do not tolerate sulfa drugs.
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Infected dyspeptic patients received pantoprazole 40 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg, and clarithromycin 500 mg, all twice daily, for 7 days (PAC7); or pantoprazole 40 mg twice daily, bismuth subcitrate 108 mg, and tetracycline 500 mg, both 4 times daily, and metronidazole 200 mg 3 times daily and 400 mg at night for 7 days (PBTM7); bismuth subcitrate 108 mg and tetracycline 500 mg, both 4 times daily, and metronidazole 200 mg 3 times daily and 400 mg at night for 14 days (BTM14). Outcome was assessed with (13)C-urea breath test.
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Treatment with Esomeprazole showed an eradication rate of 8% greater than treatment with Omeprazole and the percentage of adverse effects was similar in both groups.
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer (DU) disease. Low DU recurrences and reinfection rates were universally described, when treatment was effective. It has been suggested that short-term triple therapy, comprising a proton pump inhibitor plus two antibiotics (clarithromycin, amoxicillin or a nitroimidazole), should be used as first choice in treating H. pylori infection. Nevertheless, conflicting results have been reported on using these treatment regimens in different countries, due to the resistance of H. pylori against one or more antibiotics. Our aim was to compare the efficacy, for H. pylori eradication, of 1-week triple therapy versus 10 and 14-day triple schedules, in patients with a history of recurrent DU.
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The bacteria were cultured for 6 h at 37 degrees C/5% CO(2) in tryptone soy broth, washed, enumerated and resuspended to 0.5-3 x 10(8) cfu/mL in tissue culture medium, RPMI 1640. After 16 h of incubation at 37 degrees C / 5% CO(2), pneumolysin was assayed in the bacteria-free supernatants, as well as in lysates, using a functional assay based on the influx of calcium into human neutrophils.
To validate the efficacy and tolerability of a concomitant regimen as a first-line treatment for H. pylori infection.
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Despite the initial drug cost for triple therapy being 650 Swedish kronor (SEK; 1996 values) higher, the average total direct cost in this group was only SEK150 to SEK200 higher than in the dual therapy groups. This was a result of fewer outpatient visits and lower drug use after treatment failure in the triple therapy group. Triple therapy had a more favourable cost-effectiveness ratio than the dual therapies.
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Telithromycin is the first ketolide, which is a new class of antibacterial agents related to the macrolides that have structural modifications permitting dual binding to bacterial ribosomal RNA so that activity is retained against Streptococcus pneumoniae with macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin(B) resistance. Clinical experience in infectious patients has shown that oral telithromycin 800mg once daily for 5-10 days is effective for the treatment of community-acquired upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Absorption of telithromycin in humans is estimated to be > or = 90%. Prior to entering the systemic circulation, telithromycin undergoes first-pass metabolism (mainly by the liver). Its absolute bioavailability is 57% and is unaffected by food. The volume of distribution of telithromycin after intravenous infusion is 2.9 L/kg. Telithromycin is 60-70% bound to serum proteins and has extensive diffusion into a range of target biological tissues, achieving concentrations above its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against key respiratory pathogens throughout the dosing interval. After entering the systemic circulation, telithromycin is eliminated by multiple pathways (7% by biliary and/or intestinal excretion, 13% by renal excretion and 37% by hepatic metabolism). Telithromycin is metabolised via cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and non-CYP pathways. The identified metabolites show minimal antibacterial activity compared with the parent drug. In healthy subjects receiving telithromycin 800 mg once daily, the peak plasma concentration achieved is 2.27 microg/mL. Plasma concentrations of telithromycin show a biphasic decrease over time, with an initial disposition half-life of 2.9 hours and a terminal elimination half-life of approximately 10 hours after multiple dose administration. Steady-state plasma concentrations are achieved within 2-3 days of once-daily administration. Owing to elimination by multiple pathways there is a small increase in exposure when one of these elimination pathways is impaired, as indicated by the results of studies in special patient populations (e.g. those with hepatic or renal impairment). Dosage reductions may be recommended in patients with severe renal impairment. Inhibition of CYP3A4 by potent inhibitors such as itraconazole and ketoconazole results in a 54% and 95% increase in telithromycin area under the plasma concentration-time curve, respectively. The potential for telithromycin to inhibit the CYP3A4 pathway is similar to that of clarithromycin. The once-daily administration of telithromycin is likely to limit the potential for drug interactions and clinically significant increases in exposure. In phase III clinical trials, the telithromycin 800 mg once-daily dose has been shown to provide close to the maximum antimicrobial activity against S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. In conclusion, telithromycin has a well characterised and reproducible pharmacokinetic profile, with pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships supporting an oral dosage regimen of 800 mg once daily.
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There has been a marked decrease in the eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori infection with standard triple therapy worldwide. Hence, sequential therapy has gained attention as a promising treatment during the last few years. This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of sequential versus standard triple therapy in the context of clarithromycin (CLA) resistance.
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The in vitro and in vivo inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A with mechanism-based inhibition (MBI) by macrolides was investigated using dexamethasone-treated female rats (DEX-female rats). In the in vitro CYP inhibition studies using erythromycin (ERM) and clarithromycin (CAM), similar inhibition responses were observed between human and DEX-female rat liver microsomes, however, there were fewer effects in intact male rats. The ex vivo study showed that midazolam (MDZ) metabolism in liver microsomes of DEX-female rats was reduced by ERM administration and the inhibitory effect was increased with increasing ERM doses, indicating that metabolite intermediate complex formation caused irreversible inhibition of CYP3A activity in DEX-female rats as well as in humans. In the in vivo studies, ERM and CAM significantly increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of MDZ and decreased the total clearance in DEX-female rats. It was concluded that the DDIs via MBI of CYP3A following macrolide administration in humans could be reproduced in female rats, suggesting that DEX-female rats can serve as an in vivo model for assessing this DDI in humans.