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E. coli and other coliforms (non-E. coli) were isolated from 2473 (11%) out of 22,451 urine samples submitted, 1,618 (65.4%) and 856 (34.6%), respectively. Inclusion of non-E. coli significantly increased overall resistance rates in all tested antibiotics except for ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and it was significantly higher in males than in females in all analysed subsets (p < 0.05). Specific age resistance rates to nitrofurantoin was in the range of 15-63% and 2-12% in males and females, respectively. Resistance rates to ciprofloxacin in the two oldest age groups were 51% and 57% in males, and 11% i 17% in females.
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Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex Poir. (Hypericaceae) is used in folk medicine to treat a variety of human ailments, mainly antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and viral infections. In the present study, the methanol extract from the leaves (HML) and bark (HMB) of this plant as well as fractions (HMBa-c), sub-fractions (HMBa1-5) and compounds isolated from HMBa and HMBb namely betulinic acid (1), madagascin (2), ferruginin A (3) and Kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4) were tested for their antimicrobial activities against a panel of 28 g-negative bacteria including multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes.
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PDS scaffold containing CIP at 25 wt% showed maximum bacteria elimination with no microbial growth, differing statistically (P < .05) from the control (PDS) and from PDS scaffold containing CIP at 5 wt%. Statistical differences (P < .05) were also seen for the CFU/mL data between pure PDS (5.92-6.02 log CFU/mL) and the PDS scaffold containing CIP at 5 wt% (5.39-5.87 log CFU/mL). SEM images revealed a greater concentration of bacteria on the middle third of the dentin specimen after 5 days of biofilm formation. On scaffold exposures, SEM images showed similar results when compared with the CFU/mL data. Dentin specimens exposed to PDS + 25 wt% CIP scaffolds displayed a practically bacteria-free surface.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of lapachol, α-lapachone, β-lapachone and six antimicrobials (ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and meropenem) against twelve strains of Staphylococcus aureus from which resistance phenotypes were previously determined by the disk diffusion method. Five S. aureus strains (LFBM 01, LFBM 26, LFBM 28, LFBM 31 and LFBM 33) showed resistance to all antimicrobial agents tested and were selected for the study of the interaction between β-lapachone and antimicrobial agents, busing checkerboard method. The criteria used to evaluate the synergistic activity were defined by the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI). Among the naphthoquinones, β-lapachone was the most effective against S. aureus strains. FICI values ranged from 0.07 to 0.5, suggesting a synergistic interaction against multidrug resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. An additive effect was observed with the combination β-lapachone/ciprofloxacin against the LFBM 33 strain. The combination of β-lapachone with cefoxitin showed no added benefit against LFBM 31 and LFBM 33 strains. This study demonstrated that, in general, β-lapachone combined with beta lactams antimicrobials, fluoroquinolones and carbapenems acts synergistically inhibiting MRSA strains.
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A total of 148 E. coli strains displaying reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC > or = 2 microg/ml) and causing uncomplicated urinary tract infections in eight European countries during 2003 to 2006 were studied. Their phylogenetic groups, biochemical profiles, and antibiotic susceptibilities were determined. Determination of the O:H serotype, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR, and multilocus sequence typing provided additional discrimination. The majority (82.4%) of the microorganisms (122/148) carried resistance to two or more additional drugs, with the pattern ciprofloxacin-trimethoprim-sufamethoxazole-tetracycline-ampicillin being the most represented (73 strains out of 148; 49.3%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was detected in 12/148 strains (8.1%), with CTX-M-15 being the most-common enzyme. Six strains out of the whole collection studied (4.0%) contained a qnrB-like gene. Overall, 55 different PFGE or RAPD PCR profiles could be distinguished, indicating a substantial heterogeneity. However, about one-third (51/148) of the strains belonged to two clonal groups: O15:K52:H1 (phylogenetic group B2, lactose-nonfermenting variant, ciprofloxacin MIC of 16 microg/ml) and O25:H4 sequence type 131 (ST-131) (phylogenetic group D, ciprofloxacin MIC of > or = 32 microg/ml). With the exception of Poland, strains of these two groups were isolated in samples from all participating countries but more frequently in samples from Spain and Italy. In some representative strains of the two main clonal groups, alterations in GyrA and ParC were the basic mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance. In some members of the O25:H4 ST-131 group, displaying a ciprofloxacin MIC of > 32 microg/ml, additional OmpF loss or pump efflux overexpression was found. In the Mediterranean area, strains belonging to these two clonal groups played a major role in determining the high rate of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains observed in the community.
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A total of 19 patients were collected. Their mean age was 67.3 (SD, 12.2 year; range, 38-83 year). Of them, fourteen patients had diabetes mellitus (82.3%). The facial nerve was involved in 26% of the patients. Culture isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 26.7% of cases, and half of them were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Five patients (26.3%) had temporomandibular area involvement. Eight patients received surgical intervention and all of them survived in the end of treatment course. The mean duration of hospitalization of was 25.8 ± 20.5 days (8-90). Two patients died during hospitalization, both from comorbidities (one from severe GI bleeding and another from septic shock).
Antibiograms created by aggregating hospital-wide susceptibility data from diverse patients can be misleading. To demonstrate the utility of age- and location-stratified antibiograms, we compared stratified antibiograms for three common bacterial pathogens, E. coli, S. aureus, and S. pneumoniae. We created stratified antibiograms based on patient age (<18 years, 18-64 years, >/=65 years), and inpatient or outpatient location using all 2009 E. coli and S. aureus, and all 2008-2009 S. pneumoniae isolates submitted to our clinical microbiology laboratory. We compared susceptibility rates among cumulative and stratified antibiograms using descriptive statistics.
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Medical and microbiology records of patients with A. xylosoxidans ocular infections managed between May 2007 and December 2007 were reviewed.
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Our report shows the prevalence of PMQR mediated by qnrA and qnrB in multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from Chennai. A multidrug-resistant plasmid conferring high resistance to ciprofloxacin was found to harbour another PMQR gene, aac(6')-1b-cr mutant gene. This is the first report screening for PMQR in K. pneumoniae isolates from India.
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The urine cultures of patients with urinary tract infections admitted to outpatient clinics between 1(st) January 2008 and 31(st) December 2014 were analyzed. Presence of ≥10(5) colony-forming units/mL in urine culture media was considered as significant for UTI. Isolated bacteria were identified by standard laboratory techniques or automated system VITEK2 (BioMerieux, France) and BD PhoenixTM 100 (BD, USA), as required. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) criteria.
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The results of the microbiological diagnosis of infective inflammatory complications in patients with iatrogenic esophageotracheal fistula and the tactics of their antibacterial prophylaxis and therapy within a 9-year observation period (2003-2011) were analysed. The main organisms colonizing the tracheobronchial tree in the patients were S. epidermidis, S. aureus, enteric bacteria, P. aeruginosa and Candida. An increase of the S. epidermidis resistance to rifampicin, moxifloxacin and especially ciprofloxacin was observed. The resistance of S. aureus did not significantly change. Within the observation period, high susceptibility of all the Staphylococcus isolates to vancomycin and linezolid remained stable. Among the nonfermenting gramnegative bacteria, the P. aeruginosa isolates were the most frequent and characterized by a lower portion of the isolates with preserved susceptibility to the agents (except polymyxin B) known earlier as antipyocyanic antibiotics, i.e. to imipenem and cefepim. Since the proportion of P. aeruginosa in the etiology of pyoinflammatory processes in the region of esophageotracheal fistula ranged within 9.3 to 17.5%, the fact should be considered in the antibiotic therapy. There was observed an increase in the frequency of infectious complications due to other nonfermenting gramnegative bacteria (acinetobacters) and first of all A.baumannii. Various Candida isolates were characterized by dependence of the susceptibility on the selective pressure of irrational therapy, as well as their species (the presence of such species as C. Krusei and C. glabrata with natural resistance), that required not only the species identification but also determination of the Candida isolates resistance in every particular case.