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Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin)
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Chloramphenicol

Chloramphenicol (brand names include: Chlornitromycin / Chloramphenicol / Fenicol / Phenicol / Nevimycin / Vernacetin / Veticol) is a broad-spectrum synthetic antibiotic. Chloramphenicol is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections, including lung and blood infections; infections of the brain including bacterial meningitis and brain abscesses; and infections of the eye, ear or skin.

Other names for this medication:
Chloracol, Chloromycetin Sodium Succinate, Chloramphenicol Systemic

Similar Products:
Amoxicillin, Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Metronidazol, Rocephin

 

Also known as:  Chloromycetin.

Description

Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes as an eye ointment to treat conjunctivitis. By mouth or by injection into a vein, it is used to treat meningitis, plague, cholera, and typhoid fever. Its use by mouth or by injection is only recommended when safer antibiotics cannot be used and if used, monitoring both blood levels of the medication and blood cell levels every two days is recommended during treatment.

Dosage

Adults should receive 50 mg/kg/day in divided doses at 6-hour intervals. In exceptional cases patients with infections due to moderately resistant organisms may require increased dosage up to 100 mg/kg/day to achieve blood levels inhibiting the pathogen, but these high doses should be decreased as soon as possible. Adults with impairment of hepatic or renal function or both may have reduced ability to metabolize and excrete the drug. In instances of impaired metabolic processes, dosages should be adjusted accordingly. Precise control of concentration of the drug in the blood should be carefully followed in patients with impaired metabolic processes by the available microtechniques (information available on request).

Pediatric Patients. Dosage of 50 mg/kg/day divided into 4 doses at 6-hour intervals yields blood levels in the range effective against most susceptible organisms. Severe infections (eg, bacteremia or meningitis), especially when adequate cerebrospinal fluid concentrations are desired, may require dosage up to 100 mg/kg/day; however, it is recommended that dosage be reduced to 50 mg/kg/day as soon as possible. Children with impaired liver or kidney function may retain excessive amounts of the drug.

Neonates. A total of 25 mg/kg/day in 4 equal doses at 6-hour intervals usually produces and maintains concentrations in blood and tissues adequate to control most infections for which the drug is indicated. Increased dosage in these individuals, demanded by severe infections, should be given only to maintain the blood concentration within a therapeutically effective range. After the first two weeks of life, full-term neonates ordinarily may receive up to a total of 50 mg/kg/day equally divided into 4 doses at 6-hour intervals. These dosage recommendations are extremely important because blood concentration in all premature and full-term neonates under two weeks of age differs from that of other infants neonates. This difference is due to variations in the maturity of the metabolic functions of the liver and the kidneys. When these functions are immature (or seriously impaired in adults), high concentrations of the drug are found which tend to increase with succeeding doses.

Overdose

Overdosing by the patient is nearly impossible, as Chloramphenicol is administered via IV delivery, however an overdose can still happen. The symptoms of an overdose are likely to include nausea, vomiting, mouth odor or unpleasant taste in the mouth, bone marrow suppression, and diarrhea.

Storage

Keep all medicines out of the reach and sight of children.

Chloramphenicol eye drops (including single-use units) must be kept in a fridge (2 to 8 degrees C).

Chloramphenicol eye ointment should be stored in a cool, dry place, away from direct heat and light.

Throw away the bottle or tube of chloramphenicol after you have finished the five-day course of treatment, even if there is some left. Never keep opened bottles or tubes to use later.

Single-use units should be used as soon as the unit is opened. Do not store or re-use opened units for subsequent doses. This is because the units do not contain any preservative.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Chloramphenicol are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Chloramphenicol if you are allergic to Generic Chloramphenicol components.

Try to be careful with Generic Chloramphenicol if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Chloramphenicol can harm your baby.

Generic Chloramphenicol should not be used for colds, flu, other virus infections, sore throats or other minor infections, or to prevent infections.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Chloramphenicol taking suddenly.

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The present results suggest that intranasal enzyme therapy is a promising method for counteracting CNS chemical threat poisoning, as well as for treating CNS enzyme deficiency disorders.

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Combined drugs with a hydrophilic base, nitacide and hyposol-n, were used in combined therapy of acute purulent inflammations of the maxillofacial area. Time course of clinical parameters and changes in microflora were studied in patients administered different local treatments with different inflammatory reactions. The data indicate a high efficiency of the drugs, which optimized local therapy of suppurative wounds and are recommended for wide practical use.

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Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, or fibroblast growth factor 7) was previously reported to enhance the synthesis of surfactant in alveolar type II cells. We investigated the possible interactions between KGF and a glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (Dex), on surfactant protein (SP) gene expression. In cultured fetal rat type II cells, KGF and Dex induced greater-than-additive stimulating effects on SP-A and SP-B expressions that were enhanced three-fold and 30-fold, respectively, but had only additive effects on SP-C expression. Using murine lung epithelial (MLE) cells, KGF increased SP-A, SP-B (up to two-fold), and SP-C (up to three-fold) mRNA levels in a dose-dependent way. Dex 10(-9) to 10(-7) M increased SP-A and SP-B mRNA 1.5-fold and SP-C mRNA two-fold. Consistent with type II cell findings, simultaneous treatment by KGF and Dex induced a synergistic increase of SP-A and SP-B transcripts (three-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively), but not of SP-C transcripts. SP-A protein was present in MLE-15 and was increased about three-fold by KGF plus Dex. Expression study of a reporter gene placed under either the SP-A or the SP-B gene regulatory sequences and transfected in MLE-15 cells indicated that the Dex-KGF synergy was achieved mainly through a transcriptional effect for SP-A, and both transcriptional and nontranscriptional effects for SP-B. For the latter, increased mRNA stability was evidenced with the aid of actinomycin D. The Dex-KGF synergy may have potential interest for diseases associated with surfactant deficiency.

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A total of 30 chalcone analogues was synthesized via a base catalyzed Claisen Schmidt condensation and screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) alone or in combination with non beta-lactam antibiotics namely ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, vancomycin, doxycycline and gentamicin. In the checkerboard technique, fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI) show that the following combinations like ciprofloxacin with 25 (4'-bromo-2-hydroxychalcone); doxycycline with 21 (4-hydroxychalcone); doxycycline with 25; and doxycycline with 4 (2',2-dihydroxychalcone) were synergistic against MRSA. In term SAR study, the relationship between chalcone structure and their antibacterial activity against S. aureus and synergy with tested antibiotics were discussed. Possible mechanisms for antibacterial activity of chalcones alone as well as the synergistic effect in combinations were proposed by molecular modeling studies, respectively. Combinations of chalcones with conventional antibiotics could be an effective alternative in the treatment of infection caused by MRSA.

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Among these isolates, 65% were gram-positive organisms (375), 16.6% were gram-negative organisms (96), and 18.4% were fungi (106). The predominant pathogens were Staphylococcal species (Staphylococcus epidermidis in 175, other coagulase-negative Staphylococci in 41, and Staphylococcus aureus in 54 cases), followed by Bacillus cereus isolates. The Aspergillus species was the most frequently isolated fungus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most frequently isolated gram-negative bacteria. The antibiotic susceptibilities of gram-positive bacteria were as follows: vancomycin, 97.6%; levofloxacin, 85.1%; gentamicin, 78.7%; rifampin, 77.2%; ofloxacin, 77.2%; chloramphenicol, 76.4%; and ciprofloxacin, 73.7%. The antibiotic susceptibilities of gram-negative isolates were as follows: ceftazidime, 50.5%; ciprofloxacin, 82.2%; amikacin, 81.3%; tobramycin, 80.2%; imipenem, 79.7%; and gentamicin, 78%. Over the 10-year study, there were significant changes in the antibiotic susceptibilities to the following five antibiotics: vancomycin, imipenem, penicillin G, amikacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX).

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An 87-year-old woman who had undergone a DSAEK 4 months previously was referred to Tokushima University Hospital with a diagnosis of infectious keratitis after DSAEK. A white abscess and infiltration in the inferior cornea of the right eye were observed. We started an empiric therapy using topical levofloxacin and chloramphenicol on the basis of the microscopic findings of the corneal scraping concurrently with cultivation of the cornea.

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Antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli is potential source of transmission of resistance to other water borne pathogens where plasmid borne resistance is most significant.

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Enhancer-like element from vaccinia virus genome was obtained by using the chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase cat gene as reporter gene. An expression vector harboring prokaryotic enhancer-like sequence VV1 from vaccinia virus was constructed. Interferon was expressed and assayed.

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To quantify and localize plasmid transfection of filtration surgery tissues using two delivery techniques.

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A total of 53 patients with IgAN (group A) and 53 chronic tonsillitis patients without nephritis (group B) underwent tonsillectomy. The tonsil tissues of patients were collected under sterile condition. The bacteria in the tonsil crypt of patients in both groups were isolated and identified for antibiotic susceptibility test by the manual routine of the laboratory and also with the autoScan/Microscan system.

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The presence of a polyadenylation signal in the repeat (R) region of the HIV-1 genome, which is located at both the 5' and 3' ends of the viral transcripts, requires differential regulation of polyadenylation. The HIV-1 poly(A) site can fold in a stable stem-loop structure that is well-conserved among different human and simian immunodeficiency viruses. In this study, we tested the effect of this hairpin on polyadenylation by introducing mutations that either stabilize or destabilize the RNA structure. The HIV-1 sequences were inserted into the pSV2CAT reporter plasmid upstream of the SV40 early poly(A) site. These constructs were transfected into COS cells and transcripts were analyzed for the usage of the HIV-1 versus SV40 poly(A) site. The wild-type HIV-1 poly(A) site was used efficiently in this context and destabilization of the poly(A) hairpin did not affect the polyadenylation efficiency. In contrast, further stabilization of the hairpin severely inhibited HIV-1 polyadenylation. Additional mutations that repair the thermodynamic stability of this mutant hairpin restored the polyadenylation activity. These results indicate that the mechanism of polyadenylation can be repressed by stable RNA structure encompassing the poly(A) signal. Experiments performed at reduced temperatures also suggest an inverse correlation between the stability of the RNA structure and the efficiency of polyadenylation.

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Chloramphenicol (CAM) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, limited to occasional only use in developed countries because of its potential toxicity. To explore the influence of polyamines on the uptake and activity of CAM into cells, a series of polyamine-CAM conjugates were synthesized. Both polyamine architecture and the position of CAM-scaffold substitution were crucial in augmenting the antibacterial and anticancer potency of the synthesized conjugates. Compounds 4 and 5, prepared by replacement of dichloro-acetyl group of CAM with succinic acid attached to N4 and N1 positions of N(8),N(8)-dibenzylspermidine, respectively, exhibited higher activity than CAM in inhibiting the puromycin reaction in a bacterial cell-free system. Kinetic and footprinting analysis revealed that whereas the CAM-scaffold preserved its role in competing with the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA 3'-terminus to ribosomal A-site, the polyamine-tail could interfere with the rotatory motion of aminoacyl-tRNA 3'-terminus toward the P-site. Compared to CAM buy chloramphenicol , compounds 4 and 5 exhibited comparable or improved antibacterial activity, particularly against CAM-resistant strains. Compound 4 also possessed enhanced toxicity against human cancer cells, and lower toxicity against healthy human cells. Thus, the designed conjugates proved to be suitable tools in investigating the ribosomal catalytic center plasticity and some of them exhibited greater efficacy than CAM itself.

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One hundred and thirty-one women were included in the study period. Clinical signs were dominated by vaginal discharge (74.8%), followed by vulvar pruritus (51.9%) and dyspareunia (36.6%). Culture on Sabouraud was positive in 51 cases or 38.9%. Candida albicans was isolated in 96.1% of cases, against 3.9% of Candida glabrata. The risk factors involved were: pregnancy, antibiotics, synthetic underclothing and frequent wearing tight pants. In addition of Candida, Gardnerella Zithromax 500 Buy vaginalis was found in 36.6% of samples with an association with C. albicans in 28.2% of cases.

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The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr protein is a virion-associated protein that localizes in the nucleus of Cephalexin To Buy infected cells. Vpr has been shown to facilitate HIV infection of non-dividing cells such as macrophages by contributing to the nuclear translocation of the pre-integration complex. More recently, Vpr expression has been shown to induce an accumulation of cells at the G2 phase of the cell-cycle. We have previously reported that Vpr stimulates reporter gene expression directed from the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) as well as from heterologous viral promoters. However, the mode of action of Vpr-mediated transactivation remains to be precisely defined. We report here that, for a constant amount of transfected DNA, the level of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) mRNA is increased in Vpr-expressing cells using either HIV-1 or a murine leukemia virus (MLV) SL3-3 LTR-CAT reporter construct. Moreover, this Vpr-mediated transactivation requires that promoters direct a minimal level of basal expression. Our mutagenic analysis indicates that the transactivation mediated by Vpr is not dependent on the ability of the protein to localize in the nucleus or to be packaged in the virions. Interestingly, all transactivation-competent Vpr mutants were still able to induce a cell-cycle arrest. Conversely, transactivation-defective mutants lost the ability to mediate cell-cycle arrest, implying a functional relationship between these two functions. Overall, our results indicate that the G2 cell-cycle arrest mediated by Vpr creates a cellular environment where the HIV-1 LTR is transcriptionally more active.

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Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by orientia tsutsugamushi, transmitted to humans by the bite of the larva of trombiculid mites. It causes a disseminated vasculitic and perivascular inflammatory lesions resulting in significant vascular leakage and end-organ injury. It affects people of all ages and even though scrub typhus in pregnancy is uncommon, it is associated with increased foetal loss, preterm delivery, and small for gestational age infants. After an incubation period of 6-21 days, onset is characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, cough, and gastrointestinal symptoms. A primary papular lesion which later crusts to form a flat black eschar, may be present. If untreated, serious complications may occur involving various organs. Laboratory studies usually reveal leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, deranged hepatic and renal function, proteinuria and reticulonodular infiltrate. Owing to the potential for severe complications, diagnosis, and decision to initiate treatment should be based on clinical suspicion and confirmed by serologic tests. A therapeutic trial of tetracycline or chloramphenicol is indicated in patients in whom the diagnosis of scrub typhus is suspected. The recommended treatment regimen for scrub typhus is doxycycline. Alternative regimens include tetracycline, chloramphenicol, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, and roxithromycin. Treatment of pregnant women with azithromycin was successfully done without relapse and with favorable pregnancy outcomes. Hence, early diagnosis and treatment are essential in order to reduce the mortality and the complications associated with the disease. We searched the English-language literature for reports of scrub typhus in children, pregnant women, and non-pregnant patients with scrub typhus, using the MEDLINE/PubMed database, which includes citations from 1945 to the present time. We used the search terms 'scrub typhus', 'scrub typhus' and 'pregnancy', 'scrub typhus' and 'children', 'scrub typhus' and 'complications Buy Azithromycin Cvs ', 'scrub typhus' and 'treatment'.

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Few studies on Buy Cephalexin bacteraemia in Africa have been published. We aimed to prospectively identify the causative organisms of bacteraemia in The Gambia and their relation to clinical diagnoses, outcome and antimicrobial susceptibility.

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To evaluate the antibiogram and antibiotic resistance genes of some Vibrio strains isolated from wastewater Buy Amoxicillin Nz final effluents in a rural community of South Africa. V. vulnificus (18), V. metschnikovii (3), V. fluvialis (19) and V. parahaemolyticus (12) strains were isolated from final effluents of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in a rural community of South Africa. The disk diffusion method was used for the characterization of the antibiogram of the isolates. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to evaluate the presence of established antibiotic resistance genes using specific primer sets.

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DNA replication mechanisms are poorly understood in most of trypanosomatids, in particular the replication of the peculiar mitochondrial DNA, the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). To contribute to the knowledge on the mechanism of kDNA replication in Trypanosoma cruzi, we have previously characterized the Universal Minicircle Sequence Binding Protein Buy Azithromycin Online Overnight of this parasite (TcUMSBP), which was first called PDZ5 [E.R. Coelho, T.P. Urmenyi, J. Franco da Silveira, E. Rondinelli, R. Silva, Identification of PDZ5, a candidate universal minicircle sequence binding protein of Trypanosoma cruzi, Int. J. Parasitol. 33 (2003) 853-858]. In this work, we describe two highly polymorphic alleles of the TcUMSBP locus in the T. cruzi reference clone CL Brener and the differential expression pattern of these alleles. A 62 bp sequence in the TcUMSBP upstream intergenic region in one of its alleles affects the efficiency of polycistronic RNA processing and the polyadenylation sites, and therefore regulates the differential expression of TcUMSBP alleles of this locus.

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A total of 52 GBS from pregnant women have been studied. The capacity of benzalkonium chloride as well as of penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, vancomycin, Buy Amoxicillin Capsules chloramphenicol and tetracycline to inhibit GBS was evaluated using broth macrodilution and microdilution methods, respectively.

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Stool specimens from sporadic diarrheal patients were collected during April to December, 2010. Culture and serotyping were used to detect the Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the 2118 specimens. All the positive strains were tested for drug sensitivity by Kirby-Bauer method. Real-time PCR was used to detect the existence of three virulence genes tlh, tdh and trh. Molecular typing on Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates was completed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).