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The Viriato Study is a nationwide, prospective, multicenter surveillance study of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens commonly associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections in Portugal. In 2003 and 2004 a total of 2945 isolates was recovered in the 29 laboratories that participated in the study. Testing was undertaken in a central laboratory. Of the 513 Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from patients with acute tonsillitis all were susceptible to penicillin and other beta-lactams but 18.9% were resistant to erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin. The M phenotype dominated (67%), conferring resistance to erythromycin (MIC90 = 16 mg/L), clarythromycin and azithromycin, but susceptibility to clindamycin (MIC90 = 0.094 mg/L). From patients with lower respiratory tract infection 1,300 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 829 of Haemophilus influenzae, and 303 of Moraxella catarrhalis were studied. Among S. pneumoniae isolates 18.4% were resistant to penicillin (3.5% showing high-level resistance), 7.1% to cefuroxime, 0.5% to amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate, 18.8% to erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin, 14.9% to tetracycline, 16.5% to co-trimoxazole, and 0.4% to levofloxacin. Beta-lactamases were produced by 10.0% of H. influenzae and 96.4% of M. catarrhalis. In H. influenzae resistance to clarithromycin was 5.5% and to co-trimoxazole was 13.4%. Most strains were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefuroxime, azithromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. In M. catarrhalis resistance to co-trimoxazole was 27.1% and to tetracycline 1.0%. All strains were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefuroxime, clarithromycin, azithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Penicillin was the most active antimicrobial agent against S. pyogenes and amoxycillin/clavulanate and the quinolones the most active in vitro simultaneously against S. pneumoniae, H. influenza and M. catarrhalis.
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Our goal was to illustrate a method for making indirect treatment comparisons in the absence of head-to-head trials, by portraying the derivation of published efficacies for prophylaxis regimens of HIV-related opportunistic infections.
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The objective was to develop and characterise in vitro Bartonella bacilliformis antibiotic resistant mutants. Three B. bacilliformis strains were plated 35 or 40 times with azithromycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin or rifampicin discs. Resistance-stability was assessed performing 5 serial passages without antibiotic pressure. MICs were determined with/without Phe-Arg-β-Napthylamide and artesunate. Target alterations were screened in the 23S rRNA, rplD, rplV, gyrA, gyrB, parC, parE and rpoB genes. Chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin resistance were the most difficult and easiest (>37.3 and 10.6 passages) to be selected, respectively. All mutants but one selected with chloramphenicol achieved high resistance levels. All rifampicin, one azithromycin and one ciprofloxacin mutants did not totally revert when cultured without antibiotic pressure. Azithromycin resistance was related to L4 substitutions Gln-66 → Lys or Gly-70 → Arg; L4 deletion Δ62-65 (Lys-Met-Tyr-Lys) or L22 insertion 83::Val-Ser-Glu-Ala-His-Val-Gly-Lys-Ser; in two chloramphenicol-resistant mutants the 23S rRNA mutation G2372A was detected. GyrA Ala-91 → Val and Asp-95 → Gly and GyrB Glu474 → Lys were detected in ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants. RpoB substitutions Gln-527 → Arg, His-540 → Tyr and Ser-545 → Phe plus Ser-588 → Tyr were detected in rifampicin-resistant mutants. In 5 mutants the effect of efflux pumps on resistance was observed. Antibiotic resistance was mainly related to target mutations and overexpression of efflux pumps, which might underlie microbiological failures during treatments.
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The present study aimed to compare outcomes of pregnancies exposed to the new macrolides clarithromycin, azithromycin and roxithromycin with non-teratogenic preparations.
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The main infecting pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (38.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.6%) and Staphyloccus areus (9.3%), respectively. The most active antibiotics included rifampin (91.7% susceptibility), vancomycin (85%) and imipenem (83.5%). Emerging resistance against aminoglycosides was observed.
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Children age 3 months to 7 years and diagnosed with acute otitis media were randomized to receive treatment with single-dose ceftriaxone or with oral cefprozil, amoxicillin or azithromycin. Stool samples were obtained at enrollment and then 3-5 days, 10-14 days, and 28-30 days after therapy was initiated and screened for the presence of facultative Gram-negative bacilli resistant to ceftriaxone, cefprozil, amoxicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam and tobramycin. Mean prevalence of colonization by resistant organisms for each treatment group was compared at each time point.
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We generated 2x2 tables for the principal outcome measures. We used the Peto modified Mantel-Haenszel technique to calculate odds ratios and assessed statistical heterogeneity between studies.
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HS identified azithromycin refractory patients significantly earlier than OS, possibly facilitating aggressive treatment escalation that may improve long-term outcome. Treatment response to azithromycin should be assessed 4 weeks after initiation. Responders demonstrated best survival, with even transient response conferring benefit. Macrolide-refractory BOS carried the worst prognosis.
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The aim of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of Borrelia afzelii strains to antibiotics, and to test the hypothesis that persistence of borrelia in skin, after therapy, is a consequence of resistance to the antibiotic used for treatment. Ten B. afzelii strains isolated from skin of seven adult patients (two with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, five with erythema migrans) were studied. In three patients B. afzelii was isolated from erythema migrans lesion before antibiotic therapy and 2-3 months after treatment with cefuroxime axetil (two patients) or with ceftriaxone (one patient). MICs and MBCs for amoxicillin, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, doxycycline and amikacin were measured. There was total resistance to amikacin but isolates were susceptible to all other antibiotics except one isolate that was resistant to cefuroxime, MIC > 4 mg/L. Comparison of MBC values after 3 and 6 weeks' incubation revealed comparable results for azithromycin and ceftriaxone while for amoxicillin, cefuroxime and doxycycline, some differences were found. In one of the patients from whom there were borrelia isolated before and after treatment with cefuroxime axetil, both isolates were resistant to cefuroxime. In the other two patients, the paired isolates were susceptible to the antibiotic used for therapy.